Waste Management


Current Waste Scenario

The growing waste management problem in the Kingdom of Swaziland can be seen as a symptom of many factors. Industrialisation, consumer patterns, urbanisation and population growth as well as the absence of waste management information has precluded strategic planning in the past. 

This has prevented the implementation of appropriate remedial action such as changes in behavioural patterns; establishment of waste infrastructure and the development of required legislation in order to prevent, recycle and eventually handle waste that must be collected, treated and disposed.

With the increasing pressure of population growth coupled with the investments being made into economic infrastructure in peri-urban and rural areas located on Swazi Nation Land, there is an urgent need to identify appropriate means to improve waste management in these areas. This is relevant for household waste, waste from commercial nodes, as well as health care risk waste from health care facilities. This is perhaps less a technical exercise, since a range of technological approaches are already in existence world-wide; but perhaps more an institutional exercise by looking into and agreeing on suitable institutional and also financial arrangements. In 2001 a comprehensive Status Quo analysis of the current waste situation in Swaziland was compiled.


National Solid Waste Management Strategy

To address these matters a National Solid Waste Management Strategy (NSWMS)was compiled by the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Communication in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, including government at all levels, business and industry, as well as non-governmental organisations. Click here to view a summary of the NSWMS

The Strategy (NSWMS) sets out the following vision for the Kingdom:

"to develop, implement and maintain an integrated waste management system that will reduce the adverse impact of all forms of solid waste, so that social and economic development in Swaziland, the health of it's people and the quality of it's environment and it's resources benefit."


Pilot Projects

In connection with the Strategy 4 Pilot Projects were undertaken. The Pilot Projects were designed partly to show practical and visible demonstrations on the ground partly to test the proposed strategy against reality in Swaziland in order to fine tune and finalise the strategy.The Pilot Projects included:

The Pilot Project Summary Report provides an overview of the objectives and results.


Waste Information System

Furthermore a Waste Information System (WIS) for Swaziland has been developed. The objective of the system is to enable the Swaziland Environmental Authority to:

As the reporting ability for the different data sources varies greatly the WIS has been designed to cope with a dynamic waste classification system that allows for gradual data quality improvement. The system allows for calculation of waste statistics on any level of waste classification, based on information on mixed levels of classification.

Collection of data on waste is by resources limited to the more populated areas. Information on waste in more remote areas can therefore be added to the WIS through the use of unit numbers.

Development of the system has focused on ease of use combined with optimum effect of the resources put into operation of the WIS.



The NWMS project has developed a number of supporting documents in relation to the community pilot projects. This includes formulars, guidelines, forms, standards, lessons learnt etc. This tool-box can be used by communities who wish to establish waste management systems. The information includes the following links: